The German psychiatrist Hubertus Tellenbach based a good part of his revolutionary theory about depressive disease in both Greek distinctions and descriptions that made his personality traits artists, philosophers, writers and in his characters. For Tellenbach, melancholy consists of the failure of the ability to transcend towards the creative work: melancholy is 192
Being dominated by the torturent sense of not being able to free (from a sort of confinement) to its own capacity by its part Kay R. Jamison, in an exhaustive and recent study on the subject, states that much of the geniuses of both literature As of painting and music have been manic-depressive or have suffered at least one major depression. The study of it is based on the biographies of these geniuses, as well as on some genetic background. The most studied cases are Lord Byron, Robert Schumann, Hermann Melville, Vincent van Gogh and Ernest Hemingway that would be added, among other great creators, Baudelaire and Rilke, and philosophers Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. There is no doubt that these characters of universal culture suffered from some severe mental illness, most likely a bipolar disease, further than almost all had hereditary background. Tellenbech introduces a very interesting concept, the German word Schwermut, a term that defines a peculiar state of melancholy. An example of this could be the Kierkegaard philosopher, who describes his depression with these words: I am so dejected and lacking joy that I can not only have anything that can satisfy my soul, but I can not even imagine what could be satisfied. Also Nietzsche uses numerous times the German term Schwermütig (melancholic), derived from the adjective Schewer that means heavy. It is interesting to link the subject to the so-called spirit of heaviness that harasses Zarathustra. The spirit of the heaviness would be the genius of foreign values, while Zarathustra invites yourself to bear oneself, love oneself. In German to name the melancholy, the Melancholie word is also used, as well as Nietzsche in numerous moments of the work of him. It is therefore established a difference between melancholie melancholy without further, as a passenger state, and Schwermut, an aception that has almost a religious correspondence in the work of Baudelaire the Spleen Quand Le Ciel Bas et Lourd Pèse Comme a Couvercle came to occupy a central role, Being similar in many aspects of the German Schwermut and Nietzschean: Spleen is going to be the vital reluctance that affects the inhabitant of the large cities, the disease of modernity is Spleen what she says to your masked characters, Jorge? Whenever I think and write about aesthetic melancholiah I can not help but think of Berlin, a beautiful city always privileged by art and artistic creation, by writers, philosophers, musicians, actors, visual artists, etc.